Learn all about the ingredients in our patches.

Ingredient Glossary


Acetyl-L-Carnitine is an amino acid that fuels energy production in cells and supports nerve function. Its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier allows for improved mental function and cognition, and it has been shown to help reverse cognitive decline and improve working memory. 

What is it? 
Acetyl-L-carnitine is the acetylated and bioavailable form of L-carnitine, an amino acid naturally produced in your body to generate energy. 

How does it work? 
Acetyl-L-carnitine enhances your body’s mitochondrial function (mitochondria are the powerhouses of your cells) and cognition by creating more energy for your muscles and brain. It can pass the brain-blood barrier getting straight to the mitochondria in your brain. 

What are the benefits? 
Increased mental and physical energy: Acetyl-L- Carnitine has been shown in those who took the supplement daily to significantly boost both mental and physical energy and improve overall cognitive ability. 1 

Improve cognition: Lower Acetyl-L-Carnitine levels lead to major decreases in brain function. A 2010 study showed that 8 out of 14 participants reversed a diagnosis of dementia and returned to their full cognitive abilities after taking acetyl-L-carnitine daily. 2 

Lower inflammation: Acetyl-L-Carnitine increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes and improves the total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. It can reduce inflammation in healthy adults as it is able to increase glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant. 3 

Boost circulation: Strong blood flow is an essential part of muscle and brain function, and Acetyl-L-Carnitine can increase circulation and nutrient rich blood flow after a high-fat meal. 4 

Improve focus: Acetyl-L-Carnitine improves attention in kids with ADHD (particularly attention problems and aggressive behaviour in boys with ADHD) and adults with mental fatigue. 5, 6 

1 Vermeulen, R. C., & Scholte, H. R. (2004). Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosomatic medicine, 66(2), 276–282. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000116249.60477.e9 
2 Cuturic, M., Abramson, R. K., Moran, R. R., & Hardin, J. W. (2010). Clinical outcomes and low dose levocarnitine supplementation in psychiatric inpatients with documented hypocarnitinemia: a retrospective chart review. Journal of psychiatric practice, 16(1), 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.pra.0000367773.03636.d1 
3 Cao, Y., Qu, H. J., Li, P., Wang, C. B., Wang, L. X., & Han, Z. W. (2011). Single dose administration of L-carnitine improves antioxidant activities in healthy subjects. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, 224(3), 209–213. https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.224.209 
4 Volek, J. S., Judelson, D. A., Silvestre, R., Yamamoto, L. M., Spiering, B. A., Hatfield, D. L., Vingren, J. L., Quann, E. E., Anderson, J. M., Maresh, C. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2008). Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults. The American journal of cardiology, 102(10), 1413–1417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.07.022 
5 Van Oudheusden, L. J., & Scholte, H. R. (2002). Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids, 67(1), 33–38. https://doi.org/10.1054/plef.2002.0378 
6 Vermeulen, R. C., & Scholte, H. R. (2004). Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosomatic medicine, 66(2), 276–282. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000116249.60477.e9

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa Monnieri plays an important role in brain and muscle function. It is not addictive, enhances brain communication, improves anxiety and depression, and supports focus, attention, learning and memory. 

What is it? 
Bacopa monnieri is an Ayurvedic medicinal herb. 

How does it work? 
Bacopa monnieri is a perennial herb with nootropic (substance used to enhance memory or other cognitive functions) and other benefits with very few side effects. It has been used to improve mental clarity and improve cognitive function by supporting the health of brain cells. It works by balancing the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine in your brain and balancing stress hormone levels like noradrenaline and corticosterone. 

What are the benefits? 
Enhanced memory and cognition: Studies have shown bacopa monnieri improves working memory, spatial memory and rapid visual processing.1 

Language and comprehension: A review of five studies found bacopa monnieri improves language skills in children including vocabulary, spelling, processing sounds and understanding words.2 

Reduces stress and anxiety: Studies have found bacopa monnieri may reduce stress and anxiety in healthy people and those who suffer from anxiety.3 

Antidepressant effect: Bacopa monnieri increases brain levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and serotonin, both which have an anti-depressant effect.4 

ADHD benefits: A study of 120 children diagnosed with ADHD found that bacopa monnieri contributed to improved attention, cognition and impulse control.5 

1 Stough, C., Downey, L. A., Lloyd, J., Silber, B., Redman, S., Hutchison, C., Wesnes, K., & Nathan, P. J. (2008). Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 22(12), 1629–1634. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2537 
2 Kean, J. D., Downey, L. A., & Stough, C. (2016). A systematic review of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. Complementary therapies in medicine, 29, 56–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2016.09.002 
3 Benson, S., Downey, L. A., Stough, C., Wetherell, M., Zangara, A., & Scholey, A. (2014). An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 28(4), 551–559. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5029 
4 Aguiar, S., & Borowski, T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation research, 16(4), 313–326. https://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2013.1431 
5 Katz, M., Levine, A. A., Kol-Degani, H., & Kav-Venaki, L. (2010). A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of attention disorders, 14(3), 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054709356388

Black Cohosh

Black Cohosh acts as a phytoestrogen, mimicking the action of the estrogen to relieve symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings and fatigue – all experienced when natural estrogen levels drop. It is also used to improve sleep, nervousness, and irritability, as well as increase libido and bone density. 

What is it? 
Black cohosh is a perennial herb native to North America. 

How does it work? 
Studies suggest that black cohosh acts on serotonin and opioid receptors which play a role in central nervous system processes that help govern body temperature (thermoregulation), and feelings of stress, nervousness and mild anxiety. 

What are the benefits? 
Reduction in hot flushes: Black cohosh has been found to be effective in reducing the severity of hot flushes and a general improvement in the quality of life.1 

Reduction in mood swings, memory issues and irritability: Black cohosh has been studied to have beneficial effects on psychological conditions associated with menopause including nervousness, irritability, memory and depression. 2 

Reduction in thermoregulation and sexual issues: Studies show black cohosh reduced vasomotor (dilation and contraction of blood vessels) psychiatric, physical, and sexual symptoms associated with menopause. 3 

1 Mehrpooya, M., Rabiee, S., Larki-Harchegani, A., Fallahian, A. M., Moradi, A., Ataei, S., & Javad, M. T. (2018). A comparative study on the effect of “black cohosh” and “evening primrose oil” on menopausal hot flashes. Journal of education and health promotion, 7, 36. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_81_17 
2 Ross, S. & (2012). Menopause. Holistic Nursing Practice, 26 (1), 58-61. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0b013e31823d1f67. 
3 Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, S., Shahnazi, M., Nahaee, J., & Bayatipayan, S. (2013). Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) in treating early symptoms of menopause: A randomized clinical trial. Chinese Medicine, 8(1), 20–20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-8-20

Camellia Sinensis

Camellia sinensis or green tea leaf extract provides a calming effect. It contains L-theanine which helps to boost levels of dopamine & serotonin promoting relaxation, reducing anxiety, and improving mood and focus. 

What is it? 
Camellia sinensis is a tea leaf extract and contains the amino acid L-theanine. 

How does it work? 
Camellia sinensis works by decreasing the binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to its receptors and stimulating the production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This inhibition of brain overactivity has a calming relaxing effect which helps reduce anxiety to fade.1 

What are the benefits? 
Cognitive help: Studies have shown evidence that the properties of camellia sinensis can help reduce anxiety, benefit memory and attention, and activate working memory as seen in functional MRI.1 

Antioxidant effects: Camellia sinensis has been shown to have powerful antioxidant effects on both physical and mental health.1 

Reduces anxiety: L-theanine has been shown to affect the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and GABA and may modulate (tone down) central nervous system responses and regulate anxiety. 2 

Memory and learning: The effects of L-theanine (found in Camellia sinensis) on memory and learning parameters have been investigated with research findings consistently demonstrating that L-theanine has a positive effect on mood and cognitive performance, resulting in increased energy, clarity of thought, efficiency, increased alertness, and increased perceived work performance.3 

1 Mancini, E., Beglinger, C., Drewe, J., Zanchi, D., Lang, U. E., & Borgwardt, S. (2017). Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review. Phytomedicine (Stuttgart), 34, 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2017.07.008 
2 Ross, S. & (2014). L-Theanine (Suntheanin). Holistic Nursing Practice, 28 (1), 65-68. doi: 10.1097/HNP. 00000009. 
3 Bryan J, Tuckey M, Einother S, Garczarek U, Garrick A, DE Bruin E. Relationship between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood. Appetite. 2012;58:339–346


Damiana calms the body while simultaneously improving energy. It contains essential oils, and antioxidants, used to reduce anxiety, stress, depression, lethargy, and improve sleep. 

What is it? 
Damiana is a medicinal plant that is native to the southern US, central America and South America. 

How does it work? 
Damiana works because of its active components particularly the flavonoids which have powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. 

What are the benefits? 
Mood enhancement and stress reduction: Damiana has been studied to help manage symptoms of depression, anxiety, lethargy, and insomnia, as well as alleviate physical symptoms tied to stress, such as muscle tension or headaches.1,2 

Increased sexual vitality: Damiana has been used in traditional medicine for centuries as a natural aphrodisiac and is thought to work well due to its ability to increase energy levels, fight chronic fatigue, reduce the effects of stress, and improve stamina.1 

1 Kotta, S., Ansari, S. H., & Ali, J. (2013). Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs. Pharmacognosy reviews, 7(13), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.112832 
2 Sarris, J., McIntyre, E., & Camfield, D. A. (2013). Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 1: A review of preclinical studies. CNS Drugs, 27(3), 207-19.


Echinacea is made up of antioxidants, such as flavonoids which help defend your body against oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, lower blood sugar levels, treat pain and migraines. It is best known for its beneficial effects on the immune system, specifically being used for centuries as a herbal remedy for the common cold and flu. 

What is it? 
Echinacea is a herb native to North America containing a variety of active compounds including aklomides, phenolic acids and polyacetylenes. 

How does it work? 
Due to the compounds found within echinacea it is associated with many health benefits including reduced inflammation, improved immunity, and lower blood sugar levels. 

What are the benefits? 
High in antioxidants: Echinacea is packed with antioxidants such as flavonoids, cinchonic acid and rosmarinic acid, which help to protect your body against oxidative stress.1 

Immune support: Many studies have reported that echinacea may help your immune system fight infections and viruses and can also allow you to recover more quickly from illness.2 Echinacea has also been shown to activate the innate immune cells in a way that supports the overall immune function and response.3 

Help for common cold: Echinacea has been shown to have evidence-based efficacy on both physical barriers and innate and adaptive immune systems.4 

Reduction in anxiety: Echinacea has been studied as a potential help for anxiety with research showing that its compounds may reduce feelings of anxiety and stress.5 

1 Thygesen, L., Thulin, J., Mortensen, A., Skibsted, L., & Molgaard, P. (2007). Antioxidant activity of cichoric acid and alkamides from Echinacea purpurea, alone and in combination. Food Chemistry, 101(1), 74-81. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.048 
2 Melchart, D., Linde, K., Worku, F., Bauer, R., & Wagner, H. (1994). Immunomodulation with echinacea – a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 1(3), 245–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(11)80072-3 
3 Zhai, Z., Liu, Y., Wu, L., Senchina, D. S., Wurtele, E. S., Murphy, P. A., Kohut, M. L., & Cunnick, J. E. (2007). Enhancement of innate and adaptive immune functions by multiple Echinacea species. Journal of medicinal food, 10(3), 423–434. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.257 
4 Rondanelli, M., Miccono, A., Lamburghini, S., Avanzato, I., Riva, A., Allegrini, P., . . . Perna, S. (2018). Self-care for common colds: The pivotal role of vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, and echinacea in three main immune interactive clusters (physical barriers, innate and adaptive immunity) involved during an episode of common colds-practical advice on dosages and on the time to take these Nutrients/Botanicals in order to prevent or treat common colds. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM, 2018, 5813095. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/10.1155/2018/5813095 
5 Haller, J., Hohmann, J., & Freund, T. F. (2010). The effect of Echinacea preparations in three laboratory tests of anxiety: comparison with chlordiazepoxide. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 24(11), 1605–1613. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3181Answer

Flax seed

What is it?

Flax seeds are the small, brown or golden seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum). They are rich in essential nutrients and have gained popularity for their potential health benefits. 

How does it work?

Flax seeds are a nutritional powerhouse, primarily due to their high content of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), a plant based omega-3 fatty acid. They also contain dietary fiber, lignans, and various vitamins and minerals.

What are the benefits?

Heart health: Flax seeds are renowned for their cardiovascular benefits. ALA, the omega-3 fatty acid in flax seeds, has been associated with reduced risk of heart disease, potentially by lowering blood pressure, reducing inflammation, and improving cholesterol profiles.1

Digestive health: The dietary fiber in flax seeds promotes healthy digestion and may help alleviate constipation. Fiber contributes to a feeling of fullness, potentially assisting in weight management.

Omega-3 source: Flax seeds are one of the richest plant-based sources of ALA, which can support brain health and reduce the risk of cognitive decline.2

Antioxidant properties: Flax seeds contain lignans, which act as antioxidants and may help protect cells from oxidative stress.3


1. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Monounsaturated fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease: synopsis of the evidence available from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Nutrients. 2012;4(12):1989-2007.

2. Papanikolaou Y, Brooks J, Reider C, Fulgoni VL. U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003–2008. Nutr J. 2014;13:31.

3. Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, Seidl MM. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(6):1373-1376.

Fucus vesiculosus

What is it?

Fucus vesiculosus, commonly known as bladderwrack, is a type of brown seaweed found in coastal regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

How does it work?

Fucus vesiculosus contains iodine, a trace element essential for proper thyroid function. The
thyroid gland plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and energy production. Iodine from bladderwrack can support thyroid health and hormone

What are the benefits?

Thyroid support:  Iodine from Fucus vesiculosus can help maintain healthy thyroid function, which is essential for regulating metabolism and energy production. An adequately functioning thyroid can indirectly support weight management by helping the body burn calories efficiently.1

Weight management:
Through its potential role in thyroid health, Fucus vesiculosus may have an indirect influence on weight management by helping to regulate metabolism.2

Nutrient source: Fucus vesiculosus is a natural source of various nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, which can contribute to overall health and


1. Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(3):136-142.

2. Persich R, Buettner C, Hensrud D. Review of the U.S. Obesity Crisis and Potential Therapies. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2016;45(3):511-517.

Guarana Extract

What is it?

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a climbing plant native to the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. The seeds of guarana are known for their high caffeine content and have been used for centuries by indigenous people for their stimulating effects.

How does it work?

Guarana's stimulating effects are primarily attributed to its caffeine content. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that can increase alertness, enhance cognitive function, and provide a temporary energy boost. It works by blocking the action of adenosine, a neurotransmitter that promotes relaxation and sleep.

What are the benefits?

Energy and alertness: Guarana extract is often used to boost energy levels and combat fatigue due to its caffeine content. It can provide a natural, sustained source of energy throughout the day.1

Appetite suppression: Caffeine's stimulant effect may help reduce appetite, contributing to calorie control and weight management by reducing the desire to eat.2

Cognitive function: The caffeine in guarana can enhance cognitive performance, including increased alertness, concentration, and improved reaction time.3

1. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, Wang V, Chen G, Solomon JL. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(3):316-324.

2. Diepvens K, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea. Am J Physiol
Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(1):R77-R85.

3. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine
in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179(4):813-825.


Ginger is among the best-known spices and has many proven health benefits. It has been used for centuries for its anti-nausea properties, and it has also been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to its ability to neutralise free radicals (which cause inflammation). Ginger is rich in antioxidants that neutralise the toxic free radicals and provide protection against sudden fits of perspiration, palpitations, sleeplessness caused by night sweats, and hot flushes bought on by oxidative stress. 

What is it? 
Ginger is flowering plant whose root is used as a spice. 

How does it work? 
Ginger has many health benefits dues to the fact it contains many anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds such as pantothenic acid, beta carotene, capsaicin, curcumin, caffeic acid, and salicylate. 

What are the benefits? 
Relieves nausea: Ginger has been used as a successful preventative measure for nausea and has been shown to be effective in treating vomiting without side-effects.1,2 

Relieves muscle pain: Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties that have been researched to reduce muscle pain and soreness from exercise.3 

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties: Ginger contains many bioactive compounds which have been found to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial properties.4,5 It has also been studied for its potential to prevent and manage neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease. 6,7 

1 Chaiyakunapruk, N., Kitikannakorn, N., Nathisuwan, S., Leeprakobboon, K., & Leelasettagool, C. (2006). The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 194(1), 95–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.06.046 
2 Vutyavanich, T., Kraisarin, T., & Ruangsri, R. (2001). Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstetrics and gynecology, 97(4), 577–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0029-7844(00)01228-x 
3 Black, C. D., Herring, M. P., Hurley, D. J., & O’Connor, P. J. (2010). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. The journal of pain, 11(9), 894–903. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2009.12.013 
4 Nile S.H., Park S.W. Chromatographic analysis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of ginger extracts and its reference compounds. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2015;70:238–244. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.033 
5 Zhang M., Viennois E., Prasad M., Zhang Y., Wang L., Zhang Z., Han M.K., Xiao B., Xu C., Srinivasan S., et al. Edible ginger-derived nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. Biomaterials. 2016;101:321–340. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.06.018 6 Ho S., Chang K., Lin C. Anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of fresh ginger is attributed mainly to 10-gingerol. Food Chem. 2013;141:3183–3191. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.010 
7 Akinyemi A.J., Thome G.R., Morsch V.M., Stefanello N., Goularte J.F., Bello-Klein A., Oboh G., Chitolina Schetinger M.R. Effect of dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. J. Funct. Foods. 2015;17:792–801. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2015.06.011

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is an ancient plant extract which has been studied to have effective anti-inflammatory, immune strengthening, antioxidant, and circulation improving benefits. In addition, it is used to improve memory, cognitive function, mood as well as increase mental and physical energy. 

What is it? 
Ginkgo biloba is a natural extract derived from the leaf of the Chinese ginkgo tree (also called the maidenhair tree). 

How does it work? 
Its two main constituents, flavonoids and terpenoids, are the effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms which lower oxidative stress and improve circulation. 

What are the benefits? 
Protection + enhancement of cognitive health: Studies show that ginkgo biloba protects against cognitive impairment and supports optimal brain function by improving blood flow to the vessels in the brain.1 Studies have also shown that it improves motor performance, emotional health and mental performance without experiencing any side effects.2 

1 Snitz, B. E., O’Meara, E. S., Carlson, M. C., Arnold, A. M., Ives, D. G., Rapp, S. R., Saxton, J., Lopez, O. L., Dunn, L. O., Sink, K. M., DeKosky, S. T., & Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study Investigators, for the. (2009). Ginkgo biloba for Preventing Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A Randomized Trial. JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(24), 2663–2670. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1913 
2 Cieza, A ., Maier, P., & Pöppel, E. (2003). Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. Archives of medical research, 34(5), 373–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2003.05.001

Ginseng Extract

Ginseng helps protect the body against alcohol by promoting detoxification. Additionally it can help reduce the negative effects on mood and cognition that can occur after drinking. 

What is it? 
Ginseng is a herb that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. 

How does it work? 
Ginseng contains numerous compounds called ginsenosides which all have anti-inflammatory properties and are able to target different levels of immunological activity, resulting in the diverse actions of ginseng in humans. 

What are the benefits? 
Reduces acetaldehyde levels: Many hangover symptoms are caused by acetaldehyde (the toxic by-product of alcohol consumption) and ginseng extract has been shown to reduce acetaldehyde levels in the blood.1 

Anti-inflammatory properties: Ginseng extract has been researched to supress inflammatory mediators and help prevent alcohol induced liver damage.2 

Mood and cognition support:
 Ginseng increases Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BNDF), a protein that stimulates the growth of new brain cells.3 It also increases levels of dopamine, serotonin, GABA, and norepinephrine, all vital for mood regulation.4 

1 Lee, M. H., Kwak, J. H., Jeon, G., Lee, J. W., Seo, J. H., Lee, H. S., & Lee, J. H. (2014). Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study. Food & function, 5(3), 528–534. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60481k 
2 Lee, D. Y., Kim, M., Yoon, D., Lee, Y., Kim, G., & Yoo, Y. C. (2019). Ginseng berry prevents alcohol-induced liver damage by improving the anti-inflammatory system damage in mice and quality control of active compounds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(14) doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/10.3390/ijms20143522 
3 Kim, M., Kim, S. O., Lee, M., Park, Y., Kim, D., Cho, K. H., Kim, S. Y., & Lee, E. H. (2014). Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the stress-induced changes of BDNF and HSP70 expression in rat hippocampus. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 38(1), 257–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.06.004 
4 Niederhofer, H. (2009). Panax ginseng May Improve Some Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 6(1), 22–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390210802687221


Glutathione is produced naturally in our cells and is the body’s master antioxidant responsible for combating oxidative stress and neutralising harmful free radicals. It also supports the liver, brain, and kidneys. 

What is it? 
Glutathione is a tri-peptide made up of three amino acids, L-cysteine, glycine, and L-glutamate. 

How does it work? 
Glutathione works to help break down nutrients, create and repair DNA, supports optimal functioning of the immune system and it protects against oxidative stress. 

What are the benefits? 
Powerful antioxidant properties: Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excess of free radicals in the body which can then lead to many diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and brain damage.1 Glutathione has been studied to be a powerful scavenger and neutraliser of free radicals throughout the body and can also recharge other antioxidants such as Vitamin C and E.2,3 

Detoxification: Glutathione binds to toxins in the liver and eliminates them and has been researched to help the body more effectively metabolise alcohol.4 

1 Perricone, C., De Carolis, C., & Perricone, R. (2009). Glutathione: a key player in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity reviews, 8(8), 697–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2009.02.020 
2 Hayes, J. D., & McLellan, L. I. (1999). Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes represent a co-ordinately regulated defence against oxidative stress. Free Radical Research, 31(4), 273–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715769900300851 
3 Kern, J. K., Geier, D. A., Adams, J. B., Garver, C. R., Audhya, T., & Geier, M. R. (2011). A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders. Medical Science Monitor, 17(12), CR677–CR682. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.882125 4 Dentico, P., Volpe, A., Buongiorno, R., Grattagliano, I., Altomare, E., Tantimonaco, G., Scotto, G., Sacco, R., & Schiraldi, O. (1995). Il glutatione nella terapia delle epatopatie croniche steatosiche [Glutathione in the treatment of chronic fatty liver diseases]. Recenti progressi in medicina, 86(7-8), 290–293.

Gotu Kola

Gotu kola is a herb in the parsley family and can be helpful in perimenopause and menopause as it can help boost memory, reduce foggy brain, ease anxiety, and help alleviate fatigue. 

What is it? 
Gotu kola is a perennial plant that has been used for centuries in Chinese and Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems. 

How does it work? Gotu kola works by increasing blood circulation, the length and branches of neuron dendrites, and boosting axon growth in the brain. It also activates the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which encourages new brain cell formation. 

What are the benefits?
Cognitive function: Gotu kola has been researched to be effective in improving overall cognition and improving working memory due to its ability to promote cerebral circulation.1 

Reduction of anxiety and stress: A 2013 review of herbal medicines used for anxiety concluded that gotu kola has an acute anti-anxiety effect.2 

Blood circulation: Gotu kola has been researched extensively for its ability to naturally improve blood circulation and alleviate symptoms such as swelling, leg heaviness and pain.3, 4 

1 Farhana, K. M., Malueka, R. G., Wibowo, S., & Gofir, A. (2016). Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2016, 2795915. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2795915 
2 Sarris, J., McIntyre, E., & Camfield, D. A. (2013). Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence. CNS drugs, 27(4), 301–319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-013-0059-9 
3 Cesarone, M. R., Laurora, G., De Sanctis, M. T., Incandela, L., Grimaldi, R., Marelli, C., & Belcaro, G. (1994). Attività microcircolatoria della Centella asiatica nell’insufficienza venosa. Studio in doppio cieco [The microcirculatory activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency. A double-blind study]. Minerva cardioangiologica, 42(6), 299–304. 
4 Chong, N. J., & Aziz, Z. (2013). A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2013, 627182. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/627182


Hops from the hops plant work to encourage sleep by subduing anxiety, restlessness, irritability, and nervousness due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities. 

Its calming effect helps manage anxiety and when combined with Valerian has a calming sedative effect. 

What is it? 
Hops is an aromatic herb (female flowers from the hop plant) that contains flavonoid compounds that have a anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety effect. 

How does it work? 
Hops works to enhance GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) levels in the brain, which is the inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that lowers anxiety and increases feeling of clam and relaxation.

What are the benefits?
Combat anxiety: 
Hops is considered an anxiolytic (anxiety reducing), primarily for its calming effect and its ability to increase GABA.1,2 

Sedative effect:
 Studies have found that hops has a sedative effect and is able to improve sleep quality and lower anxiety levels.3 

Lowers body temperature: The sedative effects of hops are believed to come from its ability to lower body temperature, which helps bring about drowsiness.4

1 Weeks B. S. (2009). Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 15(11), RA256–RA262. 
2 Benkherouf, A. Y., Logrén, N., Somborac, T., Kortesniemi, M., Soini, S. L., Yang, B., Salo-Ahen, O. M. ., Laaksonen, O., & Uusi-Oukari, M. (2020). Hops compounds modulatory effects and 6-prenylnaringenin dual mode of action on GABAA receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology, 873, 172962–172962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.172962 
3 Franco, L., Sánchez, C., Bravo, R., Rodríguez, A. B., Barriga, C., Romero, E., & Cubero, J. (2012). The sedative effect of non-alcoholic beer in healthy female nurses. PloS one, 7(7), e37290. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037290 
4 Wheatley, D. (2005). Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(4), 414–421. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105053309Answer


What is it?

L-Carnitine is an amino acid derivative compound that plays a key role in the transportation of fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they are metabolized to produce energy. It is naturally synthesized in the body and is also available as a dietary supplement.

How does it work?

L-Carnitine functions by facilitating the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria, the energy-producing centers of cells. This process is essential for beta-oxidation, which is the breakdown of fatty acids to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the body's primary energy currency.

What are the benefits?

Fat metabolism: L-Carnitine can promote fat loss and support weight management. By aiding in the transportation of fatty acids, it may help the body utilize stored fat for energy, potentially leading to increased fat burning during physical activity.1 

Energy production: By enhancing the transport of fatty acids to the mitochondria, L-Carnitine can support energy production and athletic performance, making it a popular choice among athletes and individuals engaged in regular physical activity.2

Heart health: Some research suggests that L-Carnitine may have cardiovascular benefits, such as improving heart function and reducing the risk of heart-related conditions.3


1. Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2011;589(Pt 4):963-973.

2. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282(2):E474-482.

3. DiNicolantonio JJ, Lavie CJ, Fares H, Menezes AR, O'Keefe JH. L-carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo
Clin Proc. 2013;88(6):544-551.


What is it?

Lecithin is a fatty substance often derived from sources like soybeans, eggs, or sunflower seeds. It contains essential phospholipids, and serves as a valuable nutritional component.

How does it work?

Lecithin is a multifunctional nutrient that is rich in choline, a vital building block for cell membranes. It also plays a crucial role in facilitating the transportation of fats in the bloodstream, promoting overall health.

What are the benefits?

Choline source: Lecithin is a significant dietary source of choline, an essential nutrient important for brain function, cell membrane integrity, and metabolism. Adequate choline intake supports cognitive health and may enhance memory and learning abilities.1 

Heart health: Lecithin's role in fat transport can contribute to cardiovascular health. It aids in fat metabolism, potentially helping to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and supporting overall heart function. 

Weight management: By promoting efficient fat metabolism and transport, lecithin may indirectly support weight management. It can assist the body in using stored fat for energy, potentially contributing to a more balanced weight. 

Liver support: Phosphatidylcholine, a component of lecithin, is a crucial part of cell membranes in the liver. Lecithin supplementation may promote liver health by assisting in the breakdown and transportation of fats within the liver.3


1. Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus IH. Use of phosphatide precursors to promote synaptogenesis. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:59-87.

2. Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2011;589(Pt 4):963-973.

3. Buchman AL, Ament ME, Sohel M, et al. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001;25(5):260-268.

Magnesium Glycinate

Magnesium is a vital nutrient needed for over 300 chemical reactions in the body. It helps to support the nervous system, and heart, muscle, and bone health. 

Magnesium glycinate is more bioavailable than other forms of magnesium and may help relax muscles, ease twitches, tics and muscle cramps and help to reduce the effects of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. 

What is it? 
Magnesium glycinate is a type of magnesium is a mineral nutrient essential to a wide variety of body processes. It consists of the mineral magnesium bound to the amino acid glycine. 

How does it work? Magnesium works by assisting the production of serotonin in the brain, the neurotransmitter responsible for feelings of happiness. It also regulates many body processes including muscles and nerve function, blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Magnesium glycinate is a chelated form of magnesium which means it tends to be better utilised by the body than other forms that are excreted more easily. 

What are the benefits? 

Headaches and migraines:
 Magnesium levels have been found to be low in people who regularly suffer headaches and migraines and supplementation with magnesium has reduced the frequency of both headaches and migraines.1 

Improve sleep quality:
 Studies have found that magnesium supplements increase sleep time, sleep efficiency and concentrations of melatonin as well as decrease insomnia.2 

Muscle twitches, tremors, tics, and pain: Muscles twitches, tremors and tics are an early symptom of magnesium deficiency, and magnesium supplementation has been shown to reduce these symptoms. Magnesium supplementation can promote muscle relaxation, decreasing leg cramps, muscle spasms, reduce tension and fight muscular pain.3,4 

Cardiovascular health: Evidence suggests an adequate intake of magnesium has a protective effect against developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. 5,6

1 Mauskop, A., & Varughese, J. (2012). Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 119(5), 575–579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-012-0790-2 
 2 Abbasi, B., Kimiagar, M., Sadeghniiat, K., Shirazi, M. M., Hedayati, M., & Rashidkhani, B. (2012). The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 17(12), 1161–1169. 
3 Garcia-Lopez, R., Perea-Milla, E., Garcia, C.R. et al. New therapeutic approach to Tourette Syndrome in children based on a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase IV study of the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6. Trials 10, 16 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-10-16 
4 Na HS, Ryu JH, Do SH. The role of magnesium in pain. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, editors. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System. Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press; 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507245/ 
5 DiNicolantonio, J., Liu, J., & O’Keefe, J. (2018). Magnesium for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Open Heart, 5(2), e000775. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2018-000775 
6 Zhang, X., Li, Y., Del Gobbo, L., Rosanoff, A., Wang, J., Zhang, W., & Song, Y. (2016). Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 68(2), 324-333. doi: 10.1161/hypertensionaha.116.07664

Magnesium L-Threonate

Magnesium L-Threonate has antidepressant, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective qualities, as it can cross the brain blood barrier. It is also effective in enhancing brain plasticity (our brain's ability to grow and change), which is crucial to memory and learning. 

What is it? 
Magnesium L-threonate is a magnesium molecule bound to L-threonate, a vitamin C metabolite. 

How does it work? 
Magnesium L Threonate readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, increases brain plasticity, and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that stimulates the formation of new brain cells. 

What are the benefits?
Reduces biological brain age: Supplementation with magnesium L-threonate has been researched to improve four aspects of cognitive ability being working memory, episodic memory, attention and executive function.1 

Neuroprotective: Magnesium L-threonate has neuroprotective effects on motor deficits and neuron loss in the brain.2 

1 Liu, G., Weinger, J. G., Lu, Z. L., Xue, F., & Sadeghpour, S. (2016). Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD, 49(4), 971–990. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-150538 
2 Shen, Y., Dai, L., Tian, H., Xu, R., Li, F., Li, Z., Zhou, J., Wang, L., Dong, J., & Sun, L. (2019). Treatment Of Magnesium-L-Threonate Elevates The Magnesium Level In The Cerebrospinal Fluid And Attenuates Motor Deficits And Dopamine Neuron Loss In A Mouse Model Of Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 3143–3153. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S230688

Milk Thistle Extract

Milk Thistle is a herbal extract with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which has been shown to help liver function. Milk thistle acts as an antioxidant, helping to neutralise the toxins and harmful free radicals created when alcohol is consumed. 

What is it? 
Milk Thistle is a perennial herb, and its seeds contain silymarin, a group of compounds said to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects . 

How does it work? 
Milk Thistle positively affects health through its antioxidant abilities as silymarin acts as a free radical scavenger and modulator of liver enzymes. 

What are the benefits? 
Detoxification: Milk thistle has been shown to support liver detoxification by reducing the production of free radicals enabling the liver to function more effectively.1 

Protects the liver and acts as an antioxidant:
 Milk thistle can support healthy liver function and reduce free radical formation and damage to the cells.2,3 

Support liver health: Milk thistle has been shown to relieve weariness, fatigue and has anti-inflammatory benefits.3 

1 Salmi HA, Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional, and morphological alterations of the liver. A double-blind controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1982;17(4):517-21. Doi:10.3109/00365528209182242
2 Trappoliere, M., Caligiuri, A., Schmid, M., Bertolani, C., Failli, P., & Vizzutti, F. et al. (2009). Silybin, a component of sylimarin, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects on human hepatic stellate cells. Journal Of Hepatology, 50(6), 1102-1111. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.02.023 
3 Velussi, M., Cernigoi, A., Ariella, D., Dapas, F., Caffau, C., & Zilli, M. (1997). Long-term (23 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. Journal Of Hepatology, 26(4), 871-879. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8278(97)80255-3

N-Acetyl Cysteine

N-Acetyl Cysteine, or NAC, has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and can decrease free radical damage and is protective of the liver. NAC binds to and reduces levels of acetaldehyde, and it also increases the production of glutathione (our body’s master antioxidant). 

What is it? NAC is an amino acid that helps the body create and use protective antioxidants. 

How does it work? 
NAC bonds with glutamine and glycine to form glutathione, therefore supplementing with NAC increases the body’s natural cysteine levels. 

What are the benefits? 
Antioxidant and is a precursor to glutathione: NAC is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory due to its ability to increase glutathione levels, scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress.1 

Protects liver and kidneys: 
NAC protects the liver and kidneys and improves detoxification pathways, as well as having anti-inflammatory effects.2 

Mood enhancing effects: 
NAC impacts the levels of the glutamate neurotransmitter in the brain. As an imbalance in glutamate is believed to be a contributing factor to mood and cognitive disorders, it has been shown to help with anxiety, depression, and other mental health conditions.3 

1 Mokhtari, V., Afsharian, P., Shahhoseini, M., Kalantar, S. M., & Moini, A. (2017). A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine. Cell journal, 19(1), 11–17. https://doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2016.4872 
2 Sheshachala, K., & Narayanaswamy, J. C. (2019). Glutamatergic augmentation strategies in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Indian journal of psychiatry, 61(Suppl 1), S58–S65. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_520_18 
3 Denis V. Kurkin, Evgeny I. Morkovin, Nazar A. Osadchenko, Dmitry A. Bakulin, Marina A. Dubrovina, Yulia V. Gorbunova, Elizaveta E. Abrosimova, Vladislav E. Pustynnikov, Ivan N. Tyurenkov, & Vladimir I. Petrov. (2021). N-acetylcysteine relieves neurologic signs of acute ethanol hangover in rats. Research Results in Pharmacology, 7(1), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.3897/rrpharmacology.7.62622

Oat Seed

Oat seed can help soothe the symptoms of low libido and menopause by stimulating thyroid function, which in turn stimulates the production of progesterone. Progesterone is a primary hormone secreted by the female reproductive system, and a deficiency in it may contribute to many of the uncomfortable symptoms of peri-menopause and menopause, including sleeplessness and hot flushes. 

What is it? 
Oats are a group of plant belonging to the grass family. 

How does it work? Oat seed can help soothe the symptoms of low libido and menopause by stimulating thyroid function, which in turn stimulates the production of progesterone. 

What are the benefits? 
Antioxidant: Oat seed contains several antioxidants including Vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids.1 

Nervous system support: Studies have found that oat seed supports overall cognitive performance in stressful situations and boosts overall healthy mental functioning, improving attention, concentration, and the ability to maintain focus.2 

1 Al-Snafi A. The nutritional and therapeutic importance of Avena sativa – An overview. International Journal of Phytotherapy. 2015;5: 48-56. 
2 Berry NM, Robinson MJ, Bryan J, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PR. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Jul;17(7):635-7. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0450


Passionflower has been shown in clinical studies to help quiet your mind so that you can get to sleep. Research has shown that its amino acid content can naturally increase production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a chemical messenger that helps regulate nerve impulses in your brain and nervous system. 

What is it? Passionflower is a perennial climbing vine grown in Europe and south eastern parts of America. 

How does it work? Passionflower works on the body by increasing GABA levels. 

What are the benefits? 

Effective sleep aid: 
Research has shown passionflower is effective in improving sleep quality and the ability to fall asleep.1,2 

Reduce anxiety: Passionflower can increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which has been studied to reduce anxiety levels. It also has a mild anti-inflammatory effect.3 

The phytonutrient and antioxidant content of passionflower compounds exhibit powerful anti-inflammatory properties.4 

1 Baek, J. H., Nierenberg, A. A., & Kinrys, G. (2014). Clinical applications of herbal medicines for anxiety and insomnia; targeting patients with bipolar disorder. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, 48(8), 705–715. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867414539198
2 Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. (2011). A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 25(8), 1153–1159. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3400 
3 Elsas, S. M., Rossi, D. J., Raber, J., White, G., Seeley, C. A., Gregory, W. L., Mohr, C., Pfankuch, T., & Soumyanath, A. (2010). Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 17(12), 940–949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.002 
4 Sozo, J. S., Cruz, D. C., Pavei, A. F., Pereira, I. M., Wolfart, M., Ramlov, F., Fiuza Montagner, D., Maraschin, M., & Viana, A. M. (2016). In Vitro Culture and Phytochemical Analysis of Passiflora tenuifila Killip and Passiflora setacea DC (Passifloraceae). Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1391, 13–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3332-7_2

Prickly Pear

Prickly Pear fruits are packed full of polyphenols, which are organic antioxidant compounds linked to several health benefits, specifically in their ability to reduce inflammation. 

What is it? 
Prickly pear is a member of the cactus plant family. 

How does it work? 
Prickly pear works on the body as it is rich in flavonoids, carotenoid, and polyphenol antioxidants as well as Vitamin C. 

What are the benefits? 
Anti-inflammatory properties: Prickly pear extract contain phytochemicals that support the immune system, and actively reduce inflammation.1 

Antioxidant: Prickly pear extract is an effective antioxidant that can ward off free radical damage and reduce oxidative stress.2 

Essential minerals: Prickly pear provides important minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, which serve as electrolytes needed for many functions including bone, heart nerve and muscle health.3 

1 Butera, D., Tesoriere, L., Di Gaudio, F., Bongiorno, A., Allegra, M., & Pintaudi, A. et al. (2002). Antioxidant Activities of Sicilian Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) Fruit Extracts and Reducing Properties of Its Betalains: Betanin and Indicaxanthin. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 50(23), 6895-6901. doi: 10.1021/jf025696p 
2 Madrigal-Santillán, E., García-Melo, F., Morales-González, J. A., Vázquez-Alvarado, P., Muñoz-Juárez, S., Zuñiga-Pérez, C., Sumaya-Martínez, M. T., Madrigal-Bujaidar, E., & Hernández-Ceruelos, A. (2013). Antioxidant and anticlastogenic capacity of prickly pear juice. Nutrients, 5(10), 4145–4158. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5104145 
3 Özcan, M., & Al Juhaimi, F. (2011). Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indicaL.) growing in Turkey. International Journal Of Food Sciences And Nutrition, 62(5), 533-536. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.552569 

Raspberry Ketone

What is it?

Raspberry ketone is a natural compound found in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus). It is often used in dietary supplements and weight loss products for its aromatic properties and potential health benefits. 

How does it work?

Raspberry ketone is believed to work by affecting the hormone adiponectin, which helps regulate metabolism. It may increase the breakdown of fat in fat cells, leading to weight loss and potential improvements in body composition.

What are the benefits?

Weight management: Raspberry ketone has role in supporting weight loss. Some animal studies suggest that it may influence the metabolism of fat cells, leading to fat breakdown. 1

Appetite suppression: Raspberry ketone has been investigated for its potential to suppress appetite and food cravings, which can be helpful for individuals seeking to control their calorie intake.

Metabolism support: Raspberry ketone may influence metabolism and help individuals burn calories more efficiently, potentially leading to weight loss or maintenance.2


1. Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Anti obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci. 2005;77(2):194-204.

2. Lopez HL, Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, et al. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):22.


Valerian (or valerian root extract) is a herb that has been used since ancient times to promote tranquillity, improve sleep, mood, and the ability to deal with stress by reducing anxiety. 

It is safe and non-habit forming – it is often referred to as “nature’s Valium” as it is able to inhibit the breakdown of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, resulting in feelings of calm and tranquillity. 
What is it? 
Valerian is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. 

How does it work? 
It is believed Valerian works in the body by increasing the amount of GABA by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks GABA down. It contains volatile oils, including valerianic acids, which are active constituents responsible for valerians calming and restorative effect on the body’s central nervous system. 

What are the benefits?
Natural Sleep aid: Valerian reduces the time it takes to fall asleep and improves sleep quality.1,2 

Calms anxiety: Studies have shown that valerian increases the amount of GABA in the brain which helps regulate nerve cells and calms anxiety.3 
Reduces hot flushes: Studies have shown that valerian can significantly reduce hot flush severity and frequency in peri-menopausal and menopausal women.4

1 Lindahl, O., & Lindwall, L. (1989). Double blind study of a valerian preparation. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 32(4), 1065–1066. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(89)90082-8
2 Bent, S., Padula, A., Moore, D., Patterson, M., & Mehling, W. (2006). Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American journal of medicine, 119(12), 1005–1012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.026
3 Yuan, C. S., Mehendale, S., Xiao, Y., Aung, H. H., Xie, J. T., & Ang-Lee, M. K. (2004). The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity. Anesthesia and analgesia, 98(2), . https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000096189.70405.a5 
4 Mirabi, P., & Mojab, F. (2013). The effects of valerian root on hot flashes in menopausal women. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR, 12(1), 217–222.Answer

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant which helps to reduce oxidative stress, lower the risk of many chronic diseases, and by promoting the production and protection of white blood cells, can help the body fight off infections. 

What is it? 
Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid is an essential water-soluble nutrient (our bodies cannot make it) so must be consumed via diet or supplementation. 

How does it work? 
Vitamin C works as an antioxidant to neutralise free radicals and thereby preventing damage and protecting cells. 

What are the benefits? 
Boosts immune response: Vitamin C interacts with the immune system to upregulate the immune response and a deficiency in Vitamin C has been shown to impair immunity and put people at higher risk of infections.1 

Antioxidant and fights oxidative damage: Vitamin C supplementation has been shown to decrease inflammation from free radicals.2 

1 Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111211 
2 Lijljana M. Popovic, Nebojsa R. Mitic, Dijana Miric, Boban Bisevac, Mirjana Miric, Brankica Popovic, “Influence of Vitamin C Supplementaion on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Infammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise”, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, Article ID 295497, 7 pages, 2015. http://doi.org/10.1155/2015/295497Answer

Yerba mate

What is it?

Yerba mate is a plant native to South America, particularly popular in countries like Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. The leaves and twigs of the yerba mate plant are used to prepare a traditional caffeinated beverage.

How does it work?

Yerba mate contains caffeine, theobromine, and other bioactive compounds. The caffeine in yerba mate is a central nervous system stimulant, while theobromine is known for its mild stimulant and mood enhancing properties. These compounds contribute to its energizing effects.

What are the benefits?

Energy and alertness: Yerba mate is known for its stimulating effects, which can increase alertness, focus, and overall energy levels. It is often used as an alternative to coffee or tea for a caffeine boost.

Appetite suppression: The caffeine and theobromine content in yerba mate may help reduce appetite and control food cravings, and therefore can contribute to calorie control and weight management.1

Antioxidant properties: Yerba mate is rich in antioxidants, including polyphenols, which can help combat oxidative stress and may have long-term health benefits.


1. Gambero A, Ribeiro ML. The positive effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in obesity. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):730-750.


Zinc is an essential trace mineral that plays a range of important roles in the human body, including being vital for the immune system, brain health and antioxidant support.

What is it?
Zinc in an essential trace mineral.

How does it work?
Zinc is needed in the production of white blood cells (helping the body to fight infections), and is an essential building block for over 3000 proteins and 200 enzyme reactions in the body.

What are the benefits?
Immune support: There is a strong association between the intake of zinc and a significant reduction in the duration of common cold symptoms.1,2 Zinc, an antioxidant, reduces oxidative stress and decreases inflammatory cytokines.3

Skin health: There are strong links between adequate zinc intake and optimal skin health particularly in relation to deficiency correlating to acne severity.4

Hair health: Zinc deficiency may lead to brittle and thinning hair,5 as well as weakened hair shafts, increased hair breakage and slow hair regrowth.6

1 Singh, M., & Das, R. R. (2013). Zinc for the common cold. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (6), CD001364. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub4
2 Hemilä H. (2017). Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage. JRSM open, 8(5), 2054270417694291. https://doi.org/10.1177/2054270417694291
3 Prasad A. S. (2008). Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 14(5-6), 353–357. https://doi.org/10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad
4 Rostami Mogaddam, M., Safavi Ardabili, N., Maleki, N., & Soflaee, M. (2014). Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris. Biomed Research International, 2014, 1-6. doi: 10.1155/2014/474108
5 Guo, E. L., & Katta, R. (2017). Diet and hair loss: effects of nutrient deficiency and supplement use. Dermatology practical & conceptual, 7(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5826/dpc.0701a01
6 Abdel Fattah, N., Atef, M., & Al-Qaradaghi (2015). Evaluation of serum zinc level in patients with newly diagnosed and resistant alopecia areata. International Journal Of Dermatology, 55(1), 24-29. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12769


What is it?

5-HTP, or 5-Hydroxytryptophan, is a naturally occurring compound derived from the amino acid tryptophan. It serves as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

How does it work?

5-HTP is converted into serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is involved in mood regulation and appetite control. An increase in serotonin levels can lead to improvements in mood and potentially a reduction in appetite.

What are the benefits?

Mood enhancement: 5-HTP may help improve mood by increasing serotonin levels. Some individuals use it as a natural alternative to address mild mood disorders and depression.1

Appetite control: By influencing serotonin levels, 5-HTP has been studied for its potential to reduce appetite and food cravings. It may assist in weight management by helping individuals eat less and control their caloric intake.2

Sleep support: Serotonin plays a role in the sleep-wake cycle. 5-HTP supplementation may promote better sleep quality and help individuals with insomnia or sleep disturbances.3


1. Shaw K, Turner J, Del Mar C. Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003198.

2. Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm. 1989;76(2):109-117.

3. Wyatt RJ, Zarcone V, Engelman K, Dement WC, Snyder F. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on the sleep of normal human subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1971;30(6):505-509.